There are 33 consonants in Hindi. They are organized in the alphabet by how you use your mouth and throat to pronounce them. Because Hindi uses more consonants than English does, some of them have no direct equivalent in English. The (a) next to some consonants indicates that they are pronounced as aspirated (i.e., with a strong breath of air such as p in "pit" or "puff").
Velar consonants, pronounced by using the back of the tongue at the roof of your mouth (e.g., k or g in English): क k, ख k (a), ग g, घ g (a), ङ n Palatal consonants, pronounced by raising the front of the tongue just behind the gums (e.g., j in "job"): च ch, छ ch (a), ज j, झ j (a), ञ n Retroflex consonants, pronounced by curling the tongue backward and touching the roof of your mouth just behind the gums (none exist in English): ञ t, ट t (a), ड d, ढ d (a), ण n Flap consonants, pronounced by "flapping" the tip of your tongue toward the roof of your mouth behind your upper front teeth (e.g., the t softening in words like "butter," which often sounds like "budder") : ड़ d and ढ़ d (a) Dental consonants, pronounced by touching the tip of your tongue behind the back of your upper front teeth (e.g., th in "thin"): त t, थ t (a), थ d, ध d (a), न n Labial consonants, pronounced by using the lips together (e.g., b in "baby"): प p, फ p (a), ब b, भ b (a), म m Semivowels are vowel-like consonants, such as the w in "wet": य y (as in "young"), य r, ल l, व w or v Sibilant consonants, pronounced by using the tip of the tongue to push air out in a hissing noise: श sh, ष sh, स s Glottal consonants, pronounced by using the glottis at thee back of the throat: स h